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   issue 예수께서 이 나라를 살리실 것이다. Up 최종편집: 10월4일(금) 12:23    

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인류 최후의 전쟁 '아마게돈'-요한 계시록의 4명의 말탄자들
아시아는 한반도, 중동은 이스라엘이 최후의 전장이 된다!


"또 내가 보매 그 짐승과 땅의 임금들과 그 군대들이 모여 그 말 탄자와 그의 군대로 더불어 전쟁을 일으키다가 짐승이 잡히고 그 앞에서 이적을 행하던 거짓 선지자도 함께 잡혔으니 이는 짐승의 표를 받고 그의 우상에게 경배하던 자들을 이적으로 미혹하던 자라, 이 둘이 산 채로 유황불 붙는 못에 던지우고, 그 나머지는 말 탄 자의 입으로 나오는 검에 죽으매 모든 새가 그 고기로 배불리우더라." (요한계시록 19:11-21)

 

얼마 전 캐나다의 한 일간지가 여론조사를 했는데, 향후 20년 이내에 ‘세계 전쟁’이 일어날 가능성이 있다고 보는 캐나다 국민들이 전체의 80%인 것으로 나타났다. 역사를 공부함으로써 과거를 통해 미래를 예측할 수 있어야 한다. 세계가 어떻게 돌아갈 것인지에 대해 관심을 가져야 한다는 차원에서 아래 글을 남긴다. <주>
 
[1]  2차 세계 대전의 발발 전인 1935~1940년 사이 독일의 나치(Nazi)는 엄청난 인력과 자금을 조달해 중국의 티베트와 남극 대륙을 탐사했다. 그리고 2차 대전이 종막에 다다를 즈음 나치는 상당수의 조직원들과 과학자들을 U-보트 잠수함을 이용, 아르헨티나를 경유해 남극대륙의 지하기지로 숨어들었다.
 
 그리고 이들 나치 잔당을 제거하기 위한 미국의 극비 군사 작전 계획이 바로 리처드 E. 버드(Richard E. Byrd) 제독이 주도한 ‘오퍼레이션 하이점프’(Operation Highjump, 1946년)다. 당시 버드 제독이 이끈 미 해군은 나치가 개발한 ‘원반형 비행기’(Flying Saucer)와 대결을 벌여 엄청난 고생을 했으나, 결국 작전은 실패로 끝난 채 미국으로 귀환해야 했다. 
 

미국 예일대학교 비밀단체인 스컬앤본즈는 그 기원이 독일의 일루미나티이다.

 맥아더 장군이 1955년 8월 17일 공개연설을 통해 “다음 전쟁은 ‘항성 간의 전쟁’(Interplanetary War)이 될 것”이라고 말했던 것도 이 같은 이유다. [원문: “The nations of the world will have to unite for the next war will be an inter-planetary war, The nations of the Earth must someday make a common front against attack by people from other planets” (Statement printed in the New York Times by General Douglas MacArthur in 1955)] 


 미국의 나치 소탕 작전이 실패로 끝난 후 상당수의 나치들은 전후 세계 각지로 퍼졌다. 나치 엘리트들을 해외로 도피시킨 대표적인 조직으로는 ‘오데사’(SS정예 요원들로 구성)와 ‘디 슈피네’ 등이 있다. 악명 높은 나치 당원이었던 클라우스 바비와 프리드리히 슈벤트의 경우 전후 CIC에 고용됐으며, 이를 통해 나치의 남아메리카 루트를 만들었다.
 
 바르비의 경우 볼리비아, 슈벤트는 페루, 월터 라우프는 칠레, 알폰스 사센은 에콰도르, 그리고 오토 스코르체니, 한스-울리히 루델, 하인리히 뮐러는 아르헨티나로 달아났다. 멩겔레는 파라과이로 도피했다. 스코르체니(나치 친위대 대령)의 경우 스페인 마드리드에 나치 인터내셔널 본부를 만들고 이들 남아메리카 네트워크를 통괄했다.
 
 그러나 이러한 나치의 자기 일신을 방어하기 위한 도피공작보다 더 심한 나치 영입 작전이 미국 내 친(親)나치 인사들에 의해 진행됐다는 점이다. 미국의 경우 나치의 최첨단 군사과학기술 획득을 명목으로 CIC(미 육군 첩보담당기관)등의 정보기관들이 나치 인사들의 미국행을 비밀리에 도왔다. 대표적인 작전이 바로 ‘페이퍼클립 작전’(Operation Paperclip)이다. 
 obama-masonic-inaugural-ball

오바마의 대통령 취임을 축하하는 프리메이슨 모임


 소련에 앞서 독일의 최첨단 군사과학기술을 탈취해야 한다는 명목으로 진행된 이 작전을 통해 1973년까지 과학자를 포함한 600여명의 나치 인사들이 미국으로 건너왔다. 이들은 펜타곤과 정보부에 들어가 육군-CIA가 공동으로 추진하는 심리학 실험에도 참가하고 MK-울트라(인간 심리 조종 프로그램) 등의 작전에 관여했으며, 타분(Tabun)과 사린가스(Sarin)가스와 같은 신경가스에 대한 연구를 미국으로 도입했다.
 
 미국의 우주개발계획에 참여한 대표적 과학자인 베너 폰 브라운(전 나치 친위대 소령)도 페이퍼클립 작전을 통해 미국으로 건너온 대표적인 인물이다. 그는 자신의 은사였던 발터 도른 베르거 장군을 석방하는 조건으로 미국에 협력했다. 장군은 전범으로 뉘른베르크 재판에 회부됐지만 존 J. 맥로이(전 세계은행총재) 미 고등 판무관이 그를 무죄로 방면해 주었다.
 
 이 같은 과정을 통해 나치 전범 7만 명이 사면을 받았다. 1989년 사망한 맥로이는 나중에 록펠러(선조는 유태계 독일인)계의 체이스 맨해튼 은행장, 세븐 시스터즈의 벌률 고문, CFR(외교관계협의회) 의장이 되고, 케네디 암살을 조사하는 워렌 위원회에서 앨런 덜레스(전 CIA국장)와 함께 참여해 오스왈드의 단독범행으로 사건을 종결한 인물이다. 
 
priestsalutehitler The Pope, Eichmann and the Nazi Ratlines

2차 대전 당시 카톨릭은 나치를 옹호했으며, 나치 전범의 남미 탈출을 도왔다.


 맥로이는 제1차 세계대전 이후 I.G 파벤의 법률고문으로 있으면서 1936년 베를린 올림픽에서는 히틀러와 함께 특별석에 앉았으며, 이후 나치 독일과 각별한 이해관계를 갖게 됐다. 이와 함께‘페이퍼클립’ 작전에는 2차 세계 대전 기간 내내 친(親)나치 성향을 보였던 바티칸(Vatican)과 적십자가 관여하고 있었다. (인용: Hitler's Pope: The Secret History of Pius XII, John Cornwell)
 
 적십자의 경우 전후 나치를 위해 여권용 ID카드를 발급해주기도 했다. 이 같은 이유에선지 전후 적십자 국제위원회 회장이었던 앙드레 프랑수아 퐁세는 전 나치친위대 소속의 프랑스인이었다. 바티칸의 경우 제2차 세계대전 시기부터 나치와 관계를 맺고 전후 나치 잔당들이 남아메리카로 망명하는 것을 도왔다.
(인용: Unholy Trinity: How the Vatican's Nazi Networks Betrayed Western Intelligence to the Soviets, Key Phrases)
 
 미 역대 대통령 가운데 나치와 가장 관계가 깊었던 조지 부시 전 대통령의 아버지 부시다. 조지 W. 부시 미국 대통령의 할아버지인 프레스콧 부시를 중심으로 한 부시 가문은 히틀러 치하 나치의 자금 해외유출과 나치로의 비밀송금을 도맡은 ‘돈세탁 협력자’였다.
(인용: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/sep/25/usa.secondworldwar)
 
moon bush birthday

문선명 부인의 생일 파티에 참석한 부시 전 대통령 내외


 이와 함께 부시 가족 3대는 모두 ‘스컬 앤 본즈’(해골과 뼈, 나치 친위대 상징) 회원이라는 점이다.‘스컬 앤 본즈’는 1776년 5월1일 독일의 바바리아 지방에서 조직된 비밀단체의 조직원들이 미국으로 건너가 만든 단체다. 2004년 대선 주자였던 공화당의 조지 W 부시, 민주당의 존 케리 등이 모두 겉만 다르고 속은 같은 ‘스컬 앤 본즈’ 단원들이었다.
 
 일본의 저술가이자 문화사가인 운노 히로시(海野弘)는 나치 독일이 2차 세계대전으로 해체됐지만 이들이 언젠가 ‘신세계질서’(New World Order)로 부활해 정치-경제를 좌지유지하며 ‘세계 단일 정부’, ‘제4제국’ 건설을 주도할 가능성도 배제할 수 없다고 한다.
 
 1996년 AP통신은 나치 소유의 막대한 금이 뉴욕의 연방준비은행(FRB)이나 런던의 영국은행에 여전히 보관되고 있다는 사실을 보도한 바 있다. 나치 재산이 2차 세계 대전이 끝난 21세기에도 이월되고 있다는 사실이다. 
 

1947년 찍은 '스컬 앤 본즈' 단원들의 모습. 시계 왼쪽의 인물이 아버지 부시이다.


 전쟁, 특히 세계적인 대전은 우연에 의해서 발생하는 것이 아니다. 반드시 전쟁을 주도하는 사람들이 존재하게 마련이다. 6 25전쟁이 우연한 사건을 계기로 발발된 것이 아니라 북한의 치밀한 사전 준비였다는 것과 같은 이치다. 이 글은 읽는 독자들은 이 같은 역사적 사실을 잘 알고 여러 역사적 사건들의 연결고리를 추리해 나가길 바란다. 
 

[2] “北정권, 제2차 ‘한반도 전쟁’ 기정사실화”
김덕홍 전 여광무역 사장 한국논단 기고문서 언급


북한 독재자 김정일이 2007년 2.13합의 이후 제2차 한반도 전쟁을 기정사실화하고 이를 위해 국방관리기관인 국방위원회에 대한 대대적 인사를 단행한 것으로 알려졌다.

김덕홍 전 북한 여광무역 사장은 ‘한국논단’ 5월호에 기고한 장문의 ‘북한동정’ 분석에서 김정일 정권이 지난 해 여름부터 ‘국방위원회’의 지도 밑에 전당(全黨)-전군(全軍)-전민(全民)이 한결같이 움직이도록 국방위원회의 지위·역할·통솔력을 격상시켰다“면서 이 같이 말했다.
류경호텔.jpg

북한의 대표적 피라미드형 건물 '류경호텔'

 


김 전 사장은 “김정일의 이 같은 조치는 첫째로, 대내외 위기상황에 맞게 국방위원회가 당정기관 위에 군림하게 됐다는 것을 의미하며 둘째로, 현재 김정일이 국방위원회를 중심으로 통치시스템을 움직이고 있다는 것을 입증해 준다”고 지적했다.

특히 고영희 사망이후 퍼스트레이디가 된 김옥에 대해서는 “2006년 1월 김정일 중국 방문 당시 국방위원회 과장 자격으로 김옥이 김정일을 수행했다. 김정일이 김옥을 국방위원회 실장으로 임명한 것은 국방위원회 사업을 감시·조종하기 위한 것으로 판단된다”고 설명했다.

그는 이어 김정일이 최근 단행한 국방위원회 인사사업에 대해 다음과 같이 밝혔다.

△북한군 총참모장이었던 김영춘을 국방위원회부위원장으로 인사이동.
△북한군 작전국장 이명수를 국방위원회 전임위원으로 인사이동.
△북한군 총정치국 조직부국장 현철해를 국방위원회상무위원으로 인사이동.

[분석: 이 같은 인사 조치는 국방위원회가 북한군을 군사-정치적으로 직접 지휘할 수 있는 권능을 행사하게 되었다는 것을 의미한다. 다시 말하면, 유사시 필요한 경우 국방위원회가 직접 인민무력부 총참모장을 대신할 수 있도록 보강되었다는 것이다.]

김일성과 문선명.


△북한 노동당중앙위원회가 내각사무국에서 사업하던 각 분야의 능력 있는 정책관련실무일꾼들을 국방위원회로 인사이동.

[분석: 이 같은 전격적인 인사 조치는 국방위원회가 나라의 모든 정책을 직접 장악-지도할 수 있는 권능을 가지게 되었다는 것을 의미한다.]

김 전 사장은 또 “김정일이 국방위원회의 지위·역할·통솔력 격상 후 남한과 국제기구, 그리고 각국에서 지원되는 수해복구긴급구호물자를 북한군 주둔군사기지 피해를 원상 복구하는데 선차적으로 돌림으로써, 북한군의 전쟁수행능력을 재정비·보강했다”고 지적했다.

그는 이어 북한군이 김정일의 명령에 따라 국방위원회 주도로 2008년 1월16일~2월16일 기간동안 전군-전민-전국 종합동기군사훈련을 지휘-감독한 사실을 언급했다.

그러면서 “김정일 정권이 새해 벽두부터 북한 전역에서 전군-전민-전국 종합동계군사훈련을 조직한 것은 유례없는 일”이라며 다음과 같이 언급했다.

어린시절 프리메이슨에 가입한 클린턴은 김대중과도 막역한 사이였다.


“국방위원회 명령에 따라 1월15일 정규군·비정규군 비상소집훈련을 시작으로 종합기동군사훈련에 돌입한 북한전역의 정규군(북한군)과 비정규군(교도대·노동적위대·붉은청년근위대)은 진지를 차지하고 실전을 방불케 하는 야간 강행군·각종 화력훈련·공습대비훈련 등을 진행했다.”

이와 함께 “북한 전 지역 주민들은 주·야간 등화관제 훈련을 진행했다. 국방위원회는 또한 김정일의 명령에 따라 군사훈련이 기간·전시(戰時)상황에 맞게 진행되고 있는가를 감시·통제하기 위해 국방위원회검열단 까지 전국 각지에 파견했다”고 김 전 사장은 덧붙였다.

바벨탑(좌)과 유럽연합(EU)의 상징 포스터(우). 바벨탑에서 이루지 못한 인간의 탐욕이 재현되고 있다. 유럽연합을 구상한 인물들은 대개 사회주의자였다.


한편, 김 전 사장은 6자 회담과 관련된 북한의 미국에 대한 테러지원국 지정해제 요구에 대해서는 김정일 정권의 상투적인 ‘시간 끌기’ 전략이라고 설명했다.

그는 “김정일은 미국이 북한의 테러지원국 모자를 벗겨주기 힘들다는 것을 잘 알고 있다”면서 “북한은 테러지원국 지정해제를 계속 들고 나옴으로써 부시행정부 임기가 끝날 때까지 체제유지 시간벌이를 성사시키고, 국제사회에 ‘핵보유국’을 기정사실화 할 것”이라고 전망했다.

[3] 北·中·露의 '4개 전쟁전략'-북방환난(北方患難)

 

"누가 능히 철 곧 북방(北方)의 철과 놋을 꺾으리요. 그러나 네 모든 죄로 인하여 네 사경의 모든 재산과 보물로 값 없이 탈취를 당하게 할 것이며...." (예레미야 15:12)

 1. 예방전쟁(豫防戰爭) 차원에서 미국-이스라엘은 올해 초 이란 핵 시설에 대한 대대적 공격을 가할 예정이었다. 그러나 이란 핵-미사일 개발을 주도해온 김정일의 천안함 공격으로 미국과 이스라엘의 대(對)이란 공격에 차질이 생긴 것으로 보인다.
 
 미국과 이스라엘의 군사전문가들은 이란이 늦어도 올해 후반에 가서는 본격적인 ‘무기급 핵무기’를 보유하게 될 것으로 예상하고 있다. 시아파 주도의 회교 원리주의 국가인 이란의 핵보유는 시리아 및 테러조직 헤즈볼라에 대한 핵 이전으로 이어질 것이다.
 
 참고로 중동에는 현재까지 총 6천명에 달하는 북한 기술 인력이 파견되어 있으며, 이 가운데 120명의 핵-미사일 기술자가 이란에서 활동하고 있다. (천안함 공격의 외부적 요인)
 
 2. 2000년 KGB출신 푸틴 전 러시아 대통령의 방북 이후 북한은 중국의 동의하에 푸틴과 핵-미사일 기술협력 문제를 논의했으며, 이 과정에서 구소련 해체 이후 폐기됐던 북한 내 러시아 태평양 지역 감시-감청 조직을 다시금 부활시켰다.
 
 북한은 현재 러시아와 중국의 도움으로 현재 거의 모든 범위에서 남한 및 주한미군의 통신정보 수집이 가능한 상태다. 러시아와 중국이 천안함 사태에 미온적 태도를 보이는 이유가 모두 이 같은 북한과 연계된 핵-미사일 기술의 이전 관계 때문이다.
 
 3. 북한은 현재 미얀마와 이란을 통해 비밀리에 우라늄을 들여와 북한 내 지하 핵 시설에서 정제 작업을 거쳐 고농축우라늄으로 전환하고 있다. 이와 함께 북한과 이란은 남미 최대 반미(反美)국가인 베네수엘라에도 핵 기술을 이전하고 있다.
 
 북한이 현재까지 핵-미사일 기술을 이전해온 국가는 아시아에서는 미얀마, 중동에서는 이란-시리아, 남미에서는 베네수엘라이다. (이 같은 북한의 해외 핵 이전 내용은 최근 자위대 출신 일본 군사 전문가의 신서(新書)에도 자세하게 언급되어 있는 내용이다.)
 
 위와 같은 사실로 미루어 볼 때 김정일의 전략은 ‘4개의 전쟁전략’으로 4개 지역에 핵과 미사일 기술을 제공, 유사시 북한이 공격을 받았을 때 이들 지역에서 동시에 미(美) 본토를 공격하는 전략이다. 북한의 핵-미사일 개발을 지원해준 러시아와 중국을 비롯한 구(舊)공산권 국가는 김정일의 이 같은 전쟁전략이 자신들에게도 매우 유리한 것으로 보고 있다.
 
 4. 이 같은 현실적 위협에 대처하는 방법은 韓-美-日 자유세력의 연대를 통한 군사력 일체화 이외에는 방법이 없다. 만일 이것이 불가능하다면 돌파구는 ‘한국의 독자적 핵보유’ 뿐이다. 그러나 시기적으로 너무 늦은 것 같다는 생각을 지울 수 없다.
 
 우리는 조만간 인류 역사상 유래 없는 ‘악(惡)의 창궐’을 목도하게 될지도 모른다. 

 

[4] 성경이 말하는 4명의 말탄자들의 유래

 

The four horsemen of the Apocalypse are described in just eight verses of the book of Revelation, which is the last book in the bible. The four horsemen appear when the Lamb (Jesus) opens the first four seals of a scroll with seven seals (which is described in Revelation chapter 6). As each of the first four seals are opened a different coloured horse and its rider is seen by the apostle John as described in Rev 6:1-8.

First seal is opened : a white horse appears, its rider held a bow (conquest).

(Rev 6:1-8 NIV) I watched as the Lamb opened the first of the seven seals. Then I heard one of the four living creatures say in a voice like thunder, "Come!" {2} I looked, and there before me was a white horse! Its rider held a bow, and he was given a crown, and he rode out as a conqueror bent on conquest.

Second seal is opened : a red horse appears, its rider holds a sword (war)

{3} When the Lamb opened the second seal, I heard the second living creature say, "Come!" {4} Then another horse came out, a fiery red one. Its rider was given power to take peace from the earth and to make men slay each other. To him was given a large sword.

Third seal is opened: a black horse appears, its rider holds a pair of scales (famine)

{5} When the Lamb opened the third seal, I heard the third living creature say, "Come!" I looked, and there before me was a black horse! Its rider was holding a pair of scales in his hand. {6} Then I heard what sounded like a voice among the four living creatures, saying, "A quart of wheat for a day's wages, and three quarts of barley for a day's wages, and do not damage the oil and the wine!"

Fourth seal is opened : a pale horse appears, its rider is called Death

{7} When the Lamb opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living creature say, "Come!" {8} I looked, and there before me was a pale horse! Its rider was named Death, and Hades was following close behind him. They were given power over a fourth of the earth to kill by sword, famine and plague, and by the wild beasts of the earth.

The seven seals (6:1)
2.1. First seal (6:1) a white horse, its rider holds a bow
2.2. Second seal (6:3) a red horse, its rider holds a sword
2.3. Third seal (6:5) a black horse, its rider holds a pair of scales
2.4. Fourth seal (6:7) a pale horse, its rider is called Death
In Revelation chapter 4 we see God seated on the throne in heaven, it is he who is sovereign over earthly events. We should notice first that only the Lamb (Jesus) is able to take the scroll from God and to break the seals and reveal its contents. Each of the four riders is summoned onto human history by one of the heavenly living creatures. Notice the phase 'he was given a crown', 'was given power', 'do not damage the oil and the wine', 'were given power over', all of this indicates that the four riders are under the sovereignty of God. Even if we do not understand earthly events, the message of Revelation is that God is sovereign from the start to the finish. Then his enemies will be defeated and punished and his saints vindicated and rewarded. Followed by a new earth with no more death or mourning or crying or pain.


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2. The seven seals (6:1)
Background to the four horsemen.

After taking the scroll from God and being worshipped by all creation (in chapter 5) the Lamb (Jesus, the Lamb of God) now opens the seven seals of the scroll to reveal its contents. The seals as with the trumpets are in a group of four, two and one. The opening of the first four seals reveal the four horsemen of the Apocalypse. The opening of the first four seals is introduced by each of the four living creatures in turn. Each one of the four living creatures reveals a horseman, the first three horsemen are summed up by the fourth horsemen, 'They were given power over a fourth of the earth to kill by sword, famine and plague, and by the wild beasts of the earth'. These are popularly known as the four horsemen of the Apocalypse. The power of these horsemen is limited to a quarter, with the trumpets later it is limited to a third. The fifth seal reveals those who had been slain because of the word of God and their testimony, that is the persecuted church. The sixth seal reveals the day of the Lord, which brings the Lamb's wrath to those on the earth. The opening of the seventh seal reveals silence. The seven seals sum up human history from the viewpoint of heaven and the church. There is war, famine and pestilence in general and on the church in particular there is persecution, then the end will come bringing terror to the world, this probably accounts for the silence of the seventh seal.

What is described by the seals is similar to the signs of the end of the age as described by Jesus in Matthew 24. There will be wars, famines and earthquakes (Mat 24:6-8), persecution (24:9-14), the heavenly bodies are shaken (Mat 24:29) and 'at that time the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and all the nations of the earth will mourn' (Mat 24:30). After the opening of the seven seals the scroll can be read and we find more detail, but this starts in chapter 8. The seven seals describe tribulation that is largely man made (wars, famine and persecution) but under the control of God, the seven trumpets are disasters sent by God with the aim of persuading man to repent, the seven bowls are the final outpouring of God's wrath on impenitent mankind. The fact that the seven seals are opened by Christ indicates his sovereignty over the future. Jesus is the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End (Rev 22:13), he is sovereign from the beginning to the end of history, and everything in between.

2.1. First seal (6:1)
Rev 6:1 I watched as the Lamb opened the first of the seven seals. Then I heard one of the four living creatures say in a voice like thunder, "Come!" 2 I looked, and there before me was a white horse! Its rider held a bow, and he was given a crown, and he rode out as a conqueror bent on conquest.

v1 - I watched as the Lamb opened the first of the seven seals - Jesus opens the seals following the worship of all creation but especially that of the church. John watches with anticipation as the Lamb opens the first seal. Jesus opens the seals but not the book, the opening of the seals is preliminary to opening the book. Jesus opens the seals to permit us to see the future course of history which is not hidden from the saints (1:1, 22:6, 10). God has entrusted Jesus to reveal the future course of history to His church cf. 1:1, 'the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy' (19:10).

v1 - Then I heard one of the four living creatures say in a voice like thunder, "Come!" - Each one of the four living creatures introduces the first four seals. The thunder emphasises the command, Come! Which calls the first horse onto the stage. Note that the opening of the seals by the Lamb is not passive but it brings events onto the stage of human history.

v2 - I looked, and there before me was a white horse! Its rider held a bow, and he was given a crown, and he rode out as a conqueror bent on conquest - The first of the four horsemen of the Apocalypse, this image is taken from Zechariah (Zec 1:8, 6:1-8) in which there are four chariots pulled by different coloured horses, these are the four spirits of heaven going out from standing in the presence of the Lord of the whole world. The four horses cover each direction of the compass, that is, they affect the whole earth. Some see the rider on the white horse as the same rider as in Rev 19:11 i.e. Christ, see Hendriksen. This is not certain, the rider in Rev 19:11 had a sword, this one has a bow. The bow is more likely to be that of the Parthians who were the only mounted archers in the ancient world. He was given a crown, is this likely to refer to Christ who had many crowns (see Rev 19:12), but see comment on 14:14. The crown is a victors crown (Gr., stephanos) as distinguished from a royal crown (diadema), the victors crown is appropriate for someone going forth to conquer. The crown is not the same type of crown that the beast wears (13:1) or Christ wears in 19:12 who both wear the royal crown (diadema) although the 'son of man' in 14:14 wears the victors crown.

The forth horse summarises the first three and is distinctly evil, the first horse signifies the lust for conquest which is commonly the cause of war, which is the next seal and famine (third seal), the fourth seal describes death by sword, famine, plague and wild beasts. It should also be noted that in the sixth seal the wrath of the Lamb falls on the kings, princes, generals and mighty (men) among others who are responsible for war. Rev 19:18 also describes the kings, generals, mighty men, horses and their riders and the rest whose flesh the birds flying in mid-air eat. The four horses cover the four directions of the compass, they are of a unity, just as the first four trumpets and bowls affect the whole earth. The first four seals are introduced by the living creatures, the rest are not. The first rider representing conquest is the most straight forward reading of the text, although the fact that he is riding a white horse raises problems for this interpretation, although John may simply be thinking of Zech 1:8, 6:3 which have a white horse. Others argue that Christ cannot be commanded by heavenly creatures therefore the horseman must be the conquest of the word of God as prophesied by Christ (Mark 13:10), however see 14:15 where someone 'like a son of man' is told to reap. There is at least one verse in which an arrow is likened to the word of God 'He made my mouth like a sharpened sword, in the shadow of his hand he hid me; he made me into a polished arrow and concealed me in his quiver', (Isa 49:2).

Grimsrud argues that the white horse signifies triumphant warfare because the four horsemen represent war and its attendant evils: war, strife, famine and disease, and makes the following observation: ' Conquer is used 11 times in the book to allude to conquest by a faithful witness (once in each of the seven letters, in 5:5 of the Lamb, and in 12:11 and 15:2 of the faithful servants). Three times it refers to conquest by violence (here, in 11:7 where the beast kills the two witnesses, and in 13:7 where the beast wars against and conquers the saints). In all 'conquering' passages, Christ and his followers conquer by dying; Satan and the evil powers by killing'.

Johnson identifies the rider on the white horse with the antichrist and his forces that seek to conquer the followers of Christ. Each of the first four seals, then, represents conflict directed at Christians to test them and sift out false disciples (v.10). He goes on to say that this interpretation need not necessarily eliminate the fact that the seals may also refer to judgements on humankind in general. Yet since the fifth seal stresses the cry of the martyred Christians, probably the thought of Christian persecution belongs also in the first four seals. Each of them unleashes events that separate false belief from true. The destruction of Jerusalem is a case in point (Lk 21:20 ff.). The white horse goes forth to conquer, and as he does so, judgement falls on the unbelief of Israel (Lk 21:22-23), while at the same time there is testing of believers to separate the chaff from the wheat (cf. Lk 21:12-19).

There are some who see the first horseman as conquest in general, the antichrist in particular (Preacher's Outline & Sermon Bible) and who argue:

He is the deceiver; therefore he appears in white (Mat 24:5, 2 Thess 2:11).
The crown he wears is different from the crown worn by Christ in Rev 19. It is the crown of the conqueror (stephanos) not the royal crown of a king (diadema), however note that the one 'like a son of man' seated on a cloud wears a crown (stephanos) of gold on his head, 14:14.
The bow symbolises conquest. In the OT it is always the symbol of military power (Ps 46:9; Jer 51:51; Hos 1:5).
To be consistent one must relate this horsemen to the other three who appear destructive.
Note that this rider already possesses a bow but the crown is given to him and goes forth to conquer and hence is a counterfeit Christ.
a. This rider possesses a bow but Christ possesses no bow; a weapon of war is not part of his being.
b. This rider is given a crown but Christ is not given a crown. He was either crowned throughout eternity or at his ascension.
c. This rider sets out to conquer but Christ has always been conquering men's hearts. This horseman who sets out to conquer is one who already posses a bow and is given a crown at some point in time. From that point, he goes forth to conquer (cf. The little horn of Dan 7; The man of sin and the beast and the ruler of the restored Roman Empire of Rev 13; the abomination of desolation of Mat 24:15).
However the first horse being Christ conquering the nations is more in harmony with the whole book. If the rider is Christ then the conquest is the gospel, the martyrs we see in the fifth seal are there due to the resulting persecution that breaks out because of the conquest of the gospel. Hendriksen's argument that the rider is Christ is as follows:

In 5:5 Christ is portrayed as one who has triumphed.
The horse is white, this colour is associated with the holy and heavenly, e.g. white robe, white cloud, white throne, white stone etc., therefore the rider cannot be the devil or the antichrist.
The rider wears a crown which harmonises with 14:14 where Christ wears a crown of gold.
The word conquer or overcome refers with two exceptions (11:7, 13:7) to Christ or believers, see 3:21b. Compare John 16:33 with Rev 3:21b, see also Rev 5:5 and 6:2.
Compare the rider on the white horse here with the rider on the white horse in 19:11 who is clearly Christ. In 5:5 Christ conquered at the cross, in 6:2 is now conquering through the gospel, and in 19:11 he is going to conquer on the great day of judgement which is why he wears many crowns.
The idea of a conquering Christ is in harmony with the purpose of the book, see above (v) and 1:13 ff., 2:26,27, 3:21, 5:5, 6:16, 11:15, 12:11, 14:1 ff., 14:14 ff., 17:14, 19:11 note especially 17:14.(Rev 17:14) They will make war against the Lamb, but the Lamb will overcome them because he is Lord of lords and King of kings--and with him will be his called, chosen and faithful followers."
The rider on the horse in 6:2 is in harmony with Mat 10:34 in which he says that he has not come to bring peace on earth but a sword, referring to persecution. The rider on the white horse is followed by the rider on the red horse who carries a sword, and the fifth seal sees the souls of the martyrs under the altar.
Compare with Psa 45:3-5 see also Heb 1:8 which quotes this psalm in which the rider is the Son.
Compare with Zech 1:8 ff. See also Hab 3:8,9; Isa 41:2.
To sum up the first rider and his relationship to the other seals, there are four views:

a. The first rider represents the lust for conquest and as such forms an integral part of the four horsemen who are all evil and are summed up by the fourth horsemen. Conquest brings with it war, famine and death. However the colour white is usually associated with good not evil, but it can indicate victory (Lenski), the rider wears the victory crown.

b. A step further is to say that the rider is the antichrist who brings havoc and misery on the world as indicated by the second, third and fourth horsemen, the fifth seal shows the resultant persecution of Christians by the antichrist followed by the sixth seal representing the end when Christ returns.

c. The first horsemen is Christ conquering by the power of the gospel and the other seals 2 to 5 represent various forms of persecution resulting from the proclamation of the gospel of the first seal. It is perhaps appropriate that Jesus who is the beginning and the end should appear on a white horse at both the beginning and end of the visions about the future.

d. The first rider is the word of God (see Lenski), this again harmonises with the rider on the white horse in chapter 19 whose name is the Word of God and also with Matthew 24:14 and the Matthew 24 model for the interpretation of all the trumpets (see comments after 6:8). The gospel is preached and during the same time there is war, famine and death from various causes. This view makes the best sense in terms of the purpose of Revelation because persecution arises because of the word of God as indicated by the martyrs of the fifth seal who had been slain because of the word of God (5:9). Consider the two witnesses who are slain because they prophesy (11:7) and those beheaded because of the word of God (20:4). In Isa 49:2 the prophet Isaiah compares himself to a polished arrow concealed in the Lords quiver which in the context of the verse, which also refers to his mouth as a sharpened sword, must be the word of God. Consider that the armies of the Lord, who are the saints (see 17:14), as well as Christ, also ride white horses (19:14) and it is through these that the gospel is preached. Finally consider that the gospel also goes throughout the earth in the four directions of the compass just as do war, famine and death.

2.2. Second seal (6:3)
Rev 6:3 When the Lamb opened the second seal, I heard the second living creature say, "Come!" 4 Then another horse came out, a fiery red one. Its rider was given power to take peace from the earth and to make men slay each other. To him was given a large sword.

v4 - Then another horse came out, a fiery red one. Its rider was given power to take peace from the earth and to make men slay each other. To him was given a large sword. - War or persecution? In the light of Mat 24:6-7 and in light of the fourth horse that sums up the other three the balance would be in favour of war. Make men slay each other not make men slay the saints, in the light of the rest of the book the author is quite capable of indicating persecution as such. Some commentators quote the following scripture in support of persecution (Mat 10:34), 'I did not come to bring peace, but a sword'. Compare this with the sixth trumpet (Rev 9:15) in which a third of mankind is killed by mounted troops. The colour red corresponds to its mission of bloodshed. The sword is the Roman short sword (machaira). Note that its rider was given power to make men slay each other, 'was given' indicates God's permissive approval. Hendriksen however persuasively argues that the slaughter is of believers and not warfare in general.

In the context persecution follows the first horse who is Christ and the gospel.
Quotes Mat 10:34 'I came not to send peace, but a sword' (machaira)...
The word slaughter when used by John refers to the slaughter of believers except in 13:3 where the slaughtered head belongs to the beast, cf. 1 John 3:12 (Abel slain), Rev 5:6, 5:9, 5:12 (the Lamb), 6:9 (the martyrs under the alter), 13:8 (the Lamb), 18:24 (the saints).
When the fifth seal is opened it reveals the souls of the slaughtered saints which ties in with the slaughtering of the saints in the second seal.
The machaira when used in scripture refers to a sacrificial knife as in the sacrifice of Isaac.
The book is being written to believers who were being killed so that persecution not warfare is the issue. Whenever the rider on the white horse appears (Christ and the gospel) the rider on the red horse always follows (see Mat 5:10,11; Luk 21:2; Acts 4:1; 5:17 etc.). Consider Stephen and Paul, Publius and Polycarp etc.
2.3. Third seal (6:5)
Rev 6:5 When the Lamb opened the third seal, I heard the third living creature say, "Come!" I looked, and there before me was a black horse! Its rider was holding a pair of scales in his hand. 6 Then I heard what sounded like a voice among the four living creatures, saying, "A quart of wheat for a day's wages, and three quarts of barley for a day's wages, and do not damage the oil and the wine!"

v5 - "Come!" I looked, and there before me was a black horse! Its rider was holding a pair of scales in his hand. - Black could indicate dried up vegetation or even burned vegetation, see Lam 5:10. Scales are used to weigh food (Ezek 4:16). The scales can also be thought of as representing injustice since the rider only affects those who are poor.

v6 - Then I heard what sounded like a voice among the four living creatures, saying, "A quart of wheat for a day's wages, and three quarts of barley for a day's wages, and do not damage the oil and the wine!" - This indicates famine or shortage, a quart of wheat is enough good food for one person not his family, poor food (barley) is available, luxurious items such as oil and wine are not hurt. Olives and vines are deeper rooted and are therefore able to withstand drought. Walvoord comments that famine is the aftermath of war. This is the situation with the western and third world today which takes the luxurious food for itself leaving hardly enough basic food for the third world (famine and justice). Babylon is condemned for her excessive luxury Rev 18:3. The merchants traded oil, wine and wheat with Babylon (18:13), but Barley is not mentioned because it is poor mans food and not a luxury. Famine is also one of the conditions leading to the end times, Mat 24:7. Famine can also lead to political instability which is also a cause of war. Hendriksen argues that the poor people who could only afford barley are Christians. From Revelation we learn something of the conditions of the believers at that time:

They could not remain a member of a trades guild which would involve eating food sacrificed to idols and sexual immorality (cf. Pergamum and Thyatira) and it would therefore be difficult to earn a living.
Those who did not have the mark of the beast could not buy or sell (13:17).
Generally the poor would tend to become Christians (Jas 2:5, cf. 1 Cor 1:26)
The second and third riders belong together in their mission to persecute God's people as they spread oppression, injustice and economic hardship throughout the centuries of the churches existence.

2.4. Fourth seal (6:7)
Rev 6:7 When the Lamb opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living creature say, "Come!" 8 I looked, and there before me was a pale horse! Its rider was named Death, and Hades was following close behind him. They were given power over a fourth of the earth to kill by sword, famine and plague, and by the wild beasts of the earth.

v8 - I looked, and there before me was a pale horse! - The horse is sickly yellow green (Greek chloros, from which the word chlorine comes from) like a dead person. This horse sums up the work of the other three i.e. kill by sword, famine and plague, and by the wild beasts of the earth. This verse is also similar to Rev 13:10 where the clear indication is to persecution by the beast in the form of captivity, or being killed with the sword.

v8 - Its rider was named Death, and Hades was following close behind him. - Hades is the abode of the spirits after death and therefore always follows closely behind death. Death and Hades, the abode of the dead, are personified here, as in Rev 20:13. But Jesus has authority over both, see Rev 1:18.

v8 - They were given power over a fourth of the earth to kill by sword, famine and plague, and by the wild beasts of the earth. - They were given power over a quarter of the earth so it was not universal it was limited power. Compare with the trumpets, one third of the earth is affected, and the bowls which have a total effect. See also Jeremiah's four kinds of destroyers, Jer 15:2, and Ezekiel's four dreadful judgements, Ezek 5:12, 17, 14:21 (in the LXX the same word rhomphia is used for the sword). Note the fact that they were given power, indicating the sovereignty of God. The word kill used here is not (sacrificial) slaughter as in the second seal, the sword here is rhomphia not machaira, it is a great long and heavy sword, it refers to war in general (Hendriksen). These are general in character and affect all mankind and are symbolic of all universal woes that affect believers and the rest of the world throughout this current dispensation. For the church these woes are used by Christ for sanctification of the church and the extension of the kingdom (Hendriksen), compare with Rom 8:35.

What is the interpretation of the four horsemen? There is no easy interpretation of the four horses of the apocalypse, however (according to Billy Graham) they have a striking relationship to Mat 24, especially when compared with the opening of the fifth seal which speaks of the persecution of the saints and the sixth seal which parallels Mat 24:29. The seals of Revelation can be considered as a comment on and expansion of Mat 24, which is a history of the world from heavens viewpoint.

This section and in fact the rest of Revelation is also a commentary on Rom 8:28-39..

(Rom 8:28-39) And we know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to his purpose. {29} For those God foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the likeness of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. {30} And those he predestined, he also called; those he called, he also justified; those he justified, he also glorified. {31} What, then, shall we say in response to this? If God is for us, who can be against us? {32} He who did not spare his own Son, but gave him up for us all--how will he not also, along with him, graciously give us all things? {33} Who will bring any charge against those whom God has chosen? It is God who justifies. {34} Who is he that condemns? Christ Jesus, who died--more than that, who was raised to life--is at the right hand of God and is also interceding for us. {35} Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall trouble or hardship or persecution or famine or nakedness or danger or sword? {36} As it is written: "For your sake we face death all day long; we are considered as sheep to be slaughtered." {37} No, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us. {38} For I am convinced that neither death nor life, neither angels nor demons, neither the present nor the future, nor any powers, {39} neither height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God that is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

Birth pains (Mat 24:8)- This is a key verse, with a woman in labour the birth pains become more rapid and more intense as birth approaches i.e. earthquakes, wars, famines, false prophets (ending with the antichrist) followed by Christ's coming. The visions in Revelation become more detailed and more intense as they go along. The seals therefore are the unfolding of God's plan in Church and human history.

The four horsemen can be used to show that Christ is sovereign over contemporary events that John would be familiar with (Caird):

AD 60 Earthquakes.
AD 62: Defeat of Roman army by Parthian Vologeses on eastern frontier.
AD 64: Persecution of Christians following the fire of Rome.
AD 70: Four year war of Jews and Romans ending with Jerusalem in ruins.
AD 68 Suicide of Nero, followed by political chaos.
AD 79 Eruption of Vesuvius which obliterated Naples and created a pall of darkness so widespread that men feared that the end of the world had come. When volcanic dust covers the sky the moon would appear red.
AD 92 Serious grain famine.
AD 81-92 Reign of Domitian, institutes emperor worship, persecution.
AD 95 Writing of Revelation.
As with the seven trumpets and seven bowls the first four affect the earth, the last three have a more spiritual significance they affect man directly in his spirit rather as well as his body.

 

 

 

  
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