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‘자유민주주의’ 아니라면 어떤 민주주의인가
[ 2012년 04월27일 00시53분 ]
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대한민국은 1948년 건국헌법에서 북의 공산주의에 반대하는 체제로 자유민주주의를 택했다. 헌법에서 자유를 기본권으로 보장했고 법치주의와 시장경제를 받아들였다. 세계는 이런 나라를 자유민주주의 체제라고 부른다. 헌정체제가 자유민주주의와 전체주의, 권위주의로 구분된다는 것은 헌법학 교과서에도 나오는 상식이다. 자유민주주의는 유럽에서 시행되는 것과 같은 사회민주주의도 포괄하는 개념이다.

교육과학기술부가 이달 9일 확정한 ‘2011년 역사교육과정’을 놓고 ‘자유민주주의 논쟁’이 가열되고 있다. 2011년 역사교육과정은 앞으로 한국사 교과서를 제작할 때 반드시 준수해야 하는 집필 방향과 기준을 말한다. 교과부는 최종안을 발표하면서 시안(試案)에 들어 있던 ‘민주주의’라는 용어를 ‘자유민주주의’로 바꿔 고시했다. 이 사실이 알려지자 일부 학자들은 ‘자유민주주의가 아닌 민주주의로 다시 바꿔야 한다’고 요구하며 반발한다.

반대론자들은 “자유민주주의라는 용어는 냉전시대에 반공주의적 색채를 띠고 있으며 시장과 경쟁, 남북대립을 강조하는 사람들이 사용했다”면서 반감을 드러내고 있다. 교과부는 “이번 교육과정 개편은 헌법정신에 충실해야 한다는 원칙에 따라 이뤄졌다”며 “헌법 전문(前文)과 1장에 들어 있는 ‘자유민주적 기본질서’라는 표현을 근거로 삼은 것”이라고 설명한다. 헌법 전문에는 ‘자율과 조화를 바탕으로 자유민주적 기본질서를 더욱 확고히 하여’라고 명시돼 있다.

이번 논쟁은 결국 ‘민주’와 ‘민주주의’라는 용어를 어떻게 해석하느냐의 문제로 귀결되고 있다. 그렇지 않아도 최근 우리 사회에는 ‘민주’라는 말을 같이 내세우면서도 각기 다른 개념으로 바라보는 일이 두드러진다. 친북좌파 진영은 민주국가를 노동자 빈민이 주인이 되는 세상으로 인식하는 민중민주주의적 시각을 드러내고 있다. 자유민주주의라는 용어를 이들이 싫어하는 신자유주의라는 의미로 오해하는 분위기도 감지된다.

민주주의 이론의 대가로 한국을 방문한 래리 다이아몬드 미국 스탠퍼드대 교수는 “자유민주주의에서 자유(liberal)는 경제에 대한 정부의 개입 정도를 말하는 게 아니라 권력의 자의적 행사에 대한 통제를 의미한다”며 신자유주의와는 전혀 다른 개념이라고 설명했다. 그는 “자유민주주의는 민주주의가 심화하면서 보다 높은 특성을 갖고 있는 상태”라며 “권력에 대한 통제, 법치주의, 정부의 투명성, 개인권의 보호를 내용으로 하고 있다”고 부연했다.

민주주의에는 자유민주주의 사회민주주의 민중민주주의 인민민주주의 등 여러 갈래가 있다. 옛 소련과 중국 등 공산권이 내세우는 ‘인민(人民)민주주의’는 예외 없이 독재로 흘렀다. 자유민주주의라는 말에 알레르기 반응을 보이는 사람들이 상정하는 민주주의가 자유를 뿌리로 하는 민주주의와 다르다면 도대체 어떤 민주주의를 머리에 그리고 있는 것인지 명확히 해야 할 것이다.
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370 국가정체성의 核[대한민국 헌법 제3조] whiterose7 2012.05.05 3924
369 '정글자본주의'에 대해 어떻게 생각하는가? [2] whiterose7 2012.04.29 4005
독자마당 ‘자유민주주의’ 아니라면 어떤 민주주의인가 [1] whiterose7 2012.04.27 3414
367 박원순식 민주주의 조직으로 개편하겠다?? [1] godsight 2012.04.25 3200
366 서초동 법원 정문에서 일인시위하시는 이계성 교장선생님 [2] wldlib 2012.04.11 4193
365 박근혜 독식하라고 우파단일화? 박근혜가 우파인가? [5] whiterose7 2012.04.09 3198
364 지금 우리가 당면해 있는 危機가 바로 절반 이상이 赤化된 상태라는데 있다. [2] whiterose7 2012.04.06 3547
363 공안당국에 경고한다 [2] whiterose7 2012.04.04 3187
362 차인표,대한민국 교회와 성도들 회개하세요... 북한인권에 대해 침묵한것을 [51] sahebada 2012.03.22 4132
361 대한민국은 '빵' 때문에 싸우는 나라는 아니다. [55] whiterose7 2012.03.21 2926
360 진실 외치는 소수만으로도 위대한 역사 만든다. [1] whiterose7 2012.03.20 2279
359 굿바이,평양 [1] whiterose7 2012.03.19 2321
358 국가가 너에게 무엇을 해줄 것을 기대하기 전에,네가 국가를 위해 무엇을 할 것인가를 고민하라. [52] whiterose7 2012.03.16 6324
357 恐怖사회와 自由사회는 평화롭게 共存할 수 없다. [1] whiterose7 2012.03.09 2318
356 “썩은 암덩어리 MBC” [1] sahebada 2012.02.07 2414
355 평양이 잊지 못하는 사람 [1] sahebada 2012.01.17 2589
354 전교조 타도 위해 서초동 법원앞에서 매일 일인시위 하시는 이계성 교장선생님 [52] wldlib 2012.01.17 3356
353 노벨상 받은 이명박.....4대강 사업으로 받았다. [6] weppy111 2012.01.14 2639
352 그냥 사세요 [2] kkk10203 2012.01.08 1998
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 1. 親中? 선교하는 통일한국이냐 침몰이냐
 2. 北내분? 김정은, 최룡해 내세워 황병..
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